By Joseph S. Joseph (eds.)
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Additional info for Turkey and the European Union: Internal Dynamics and External Challenges
3, there is no uniform trend in income inequality immediately after EU membership. In two countries, income inequality has remained constant after accession. This is the case for Greece (accession in 1981) and Portugal (accession in 1985). In one country (Ireland), income inequality seems to have fallen from the date of accession (1973) to the early 1980s, but to have increased in the mid 1980s. Finally, in one country (Spain) income inequality seems to have increased from mid 1980s (accession in 1985) to the early 1990s.
The estimates above are in addition to what Harrison et al. 5 per cent of the benchmark level in early 1990s. Further integration in the single market can also be expected to generate trade-related benefits. 5 per cent of Turkish GDP at the end of the 1990s. However, existing theories also suggest that EU membership can affect Turkish GDP growth through other channels too. Two such channels are especially significant: (1) the policy credibility channel, and (2) the signalling channel. What underpins the accession’s Mehmet Ugur 23 impact through these channels is the structural break with the old policy framework.
Statistics; 19. Social policy and employment (including antidiscrimination and equal opportunities for women and men); 20. Enterprise and industrial policy; 21. Trans-European networks; 22. Regional policy and coordination of structural instruments; 23. Judiciary and fundamental rights; 24. Justice, freedom and security; 25. Science and research; 26. Education and culture; 27. Environment; 28. Consumer and health protection; 29. Customs union; 30. External relations; 31. Foreign, security and defence policy; 32.