By Geraldine J. Clifford
Those reliable Gertrudes explores the pro, civic, and private roles of girls academics all through American heritage. Its voice, issues, and findings construct from the regularly unpublished writings of many girls and their households, colleagues, and scholars. Geraldine J. Clifford studied own background manuscripts in data and consulted published autobiographies, diaries, correspondence, oral histories, interviews―even movie and fiction―to probe the multifaceted imagery that has surrounded teaching.
This huge ranging, inclusive, and comparative paintings surveys a protracted earlier the place schoolteaching was once primarily men's paintings, with ladies relegated to constrained niches resembling educating rudiments of the vernacular language to little ones and socializing ladies for standard gender roles. Clifford records and explains the emergence of girls because the prototypical schoolteachers within the usa, a approach obvious within the overdue colonial interval and carrying on with during the 19th century, once they turned the vast majority of American private and non-private schoolteachers.
The capstone of Clifford’s exceptional occupation and the definitive publication on ladies lecturers in the USA, Those solid Gertrudes will have interaction students within the historical past of schooling and women’s heritage, lecturers prior, current, and destiny, and readers with shiny stories in their personal teachers.
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Extra resources for Those Good Gertrudes: A Social History of Women Teachers in America
Stéphanie Félicité, comtesse de Genlis, governess in the family of the Duchesse de Chartres from 1777 to 1791, also published widely on education, vigorously promoting gender equality. Maria Francesca Rossetti (b. 1827) was a governess in the English countryside when her father, Gabriele Rossetti, suffered a breakdown. To help support the family, his wife Frances became a nonresident “day governess,” going daily to a family for a few hours. In this respect, she was analogous to the servant who did not live in, although of somewhat higher social status.
69 Although some Massachusetts town schools recorded a mistress later than others—the first recorded in Dedham was Mary Green in 1757—a sense of New England’s relative taken-for-grantedness of women as schoolteachers may be gleaned from the autobiography of Rev. John Barnard (b. 1681). ”70 As chapter 2 will elaborate, from these beginnings, by the second half of the nineteenth century, a combination of females and governesses in households, nuns in church schools, and women teachers in private and public schools provided most of the basic education in most American states.
Novels portray becoming a governess as the only respectable recourse of needy gentlewomen forced to earn an independent living. 21 Although better known through English fiction than historical scholarship, the governess was a reality: commonly a “gently born” woman employed by aristocratic families and later by lesser local elites. In the 1390s, Beatriz Galindo (b. c. 1470) tutored Queen Isabella of Castile in Latin and remained at court to teach the Spanish princesses. Stéphanie Félicité, comtesse de Genlis, governess in the family of the Duchesse de Chartres from 1777 to 1791, also published widely on education, vigorously promoting gender equality.