By D. Hanley
The great literature on globalization integration and supranational our bodies akin to the ecu dwells more often than not at the difficulties which such techniques pose for the countryside. States are obvious as desiring to supply responses to those new demanding situations, yet events inside these states are both challenged. David Hanley examines how events handle these demanding situations and the way within which events act at supranational point.
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Extra info for Beyond the Nation State: Parties in the Era of Integration
We believe that the whole experience of transnational activity by party has thrown up a number of unforeseen benefits. Our next, historical chapter will explore this phenomenon more fully; suffice it to say for now that these benefits have to do predominantly with the identity dimension of party. It would seem then that the P/A relationship might offer a useful way of looking at the delegation made by national parties to TNP. There are clear possible benefits, some of them the result of experience rather than of rational calculation at the start.
The various socialist parties (principals) set up an agency in order to obtain results in the diplomatic arena, which the principals individually could not hope for. The national parties had shown an unprecedented degree of inventiveness, not merely adapting to an institutional setting (their relative impotence in domestic politics) but actually trying to modify it (by obtaining leverage on foreign policy through creation of an agency for joint transnational action). If contemporary analysts speak of ‘bottom-up Europeanisation’ to conceptualise the ways in which domestic political forces seek to shape outcomes at European level, then this might be said to be an early example of bottom-up transnationalism.
Its legendary satellite organisations, covering all aspects of civil society from leisure to insurance to education made it into a veritable counter-society within the German Reich. Precisely because of this, however, its hold in German politics was quite precarious; earlier Bismarck had sought to check its rise by repressive legislation (an option that could always be renewed). Even if it did well in Reichstag elections, its deputies were returned to a body that was only 36 Beyond the Nation State consultative and where they were unable to influence policy.