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By James E. Turner

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation security deals execs and complex scholars a accomplished assurance of the foremost strategies that underlie the origins and shipping of ionizing radiation in subject. figuring out atomic constitution and the actual mechanisms of radiation interactions is the basis on which a lot of the present perform of radiological healthiness safeguard relies. The paintings covers the detection and size of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the information. The systems which are used to guard guy and the surroundings from the aptitude damaging results of radiation are completely defined. easy ideas are illustrated with an abundance of labored examples that exemplify useful functions. Chapters comprise challenge units (with partial solutions) and broad tables and graphs for persevered use as a reference paintings. This thoroughly revised and enlarged 3rd version comprises thorough updates of the fabric, together with the newest techniques of the ICRP and NCRP.

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About 1 in 8000 was deflected more than 90◦ . An enormously strong electric or magnetic field would be required to reverse the direction of the fast and relatively massive alpha particle. ) “It was about as credible as if you had fired a 15-in. shell at a piece of tissue paper and it came back and hit you,” said Rutherford of this surprising discovery. He reasoned that the large-angle deflection of some alpha particles was evidence for the existence of a very small and massive nucleus, which was also the seat of the positive charge of an atom.

Then, in 1925, Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit proposed that the electron has an intrinsic angular momentum 12 due to rotation about its own axis; thus the physical significance of Pauli’s fourth quantum number was evident. The electron’s intrinsic spin endows it with magnetic properties. The spin quantum number, s, has two values, s = ± 12 . In an external magnetic field, the electron aligns itself either with “spin up” or “spin down” with respect to the field direction. The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons in an atom can occupy a state with the same set of four quantum numbers n, l, m, and s.

In principle, Bohr’s ideas thus account for the existence of discrete optical spectra that characterize an atom and for the fact that an element emits and absorbs photons of the same wavelengths. Bohr discovered that the proper electronic energy levels, yielding the observed spectra, were obtained by requiring that the angular momentum of the electron about the nucleus be an integral multiple of Planck’s constant h divided by 2π ( = h/2π ). ) For an 2 The four fundamental forces in nature are (1) gravitational, (2) electromagnetic, (3) strong (nuclear), and (4) weak (responsible for beta decay).

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