Download Ancient Rome, from the earliest times down to 476 A. D by Robert F. Pennell PDF

By Robert F. Pennell

Robert Franklin Pennell (1850, Maine – 1905, San Francisco) used to be an American educator and classicist.

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B. Of the ROMAN COLONIES, mostly maritime, now numbering seven, but finally increased to thirty-five. c. Of the MUNICIPIA (towns bound to service). d. Of the PRAEFECTÚRAE (towns governed by a praefect, who was sent from Rome and appointed by the Praetor). The DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES were made up,— a. Of the LATIN (military) COLONIES, now numbering twenty-two, afterwards increased 40 to thirty-five. b. Of the ALLIES of Rome (Socii), whose cities and adjoining territory composed more than one half of the country controlled by Rome.

This time was employed by the Samnites in endeavoring to unite Italy against Rome. They were joined by the UMBRIANS, GAULS, and ETRUSCANS. The LUCANIANS alone were with Rome. The war was of short duration, and was practically decided by the sanguinary battle of SENTINUM (295) in Umbria. The Samnites, led by Gellius Egnatius, were routed by the Roman Consuls QUINTUS FABIUS MAXIMUS and PUBLIUS DECIUS MUS. In this battle the struggle was long and doubtful. The Samnites were assisted by the Gauls, who were showing themselves more than a match for the part of the Roman army opposed to them, and commanded by Decius.

The fleet with its commander was captured. In the second engagement, off Mylae, all the Roman fleet under GAIUS DUILIUS took part. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, son of Gisco. The newly invented stages or boarding-bridges of the Romans were found to be very effective. The enemy could not approach near without these bridges descending with their grappling irons and holding them fast to the Romans. The Carthaginians were defeated, with the loss of nearly half their fleet. A bronze column, ornamented with the beaks of the captured vessels, was erected at Rome in honor of this victory of Duilius.

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