By Felix R. FitzRoy, Elissaios Papyrakis
Curiosity in weather switch has generated a mountain of literature leaving many floundering within the sheer flood of data, statement, claims and projects. This hugely obtainable booklet assumes no earlier wisdom and cuts during the confusion to provide an explanation for the main monetary and coverage concerns regarding weather switch in uncomplicated language and with just a couple of records. insurance slices around the breadth and intensity of weather switch, offering brief summaries of the main correct study and conclusions from a variety of disciplines. The authors spotlight the place economists and coverage makers usually misunderstand the technological know-how of weather switch, underestimate the hazards of runaway warming and exaggerate the prices of radical measures to stabilize the weather. A key concentration is the impression of weather swap on global agriculture, the world's most vital task. The authors offer a severe exam of ways present rules that advertise negative water utilization and soil erosion are risking a catastrophic cave in of agriculture within the poorest and such a lot populous international locations in a warming international. they appear on the suggestions akin to how no-till, conservation farming, 3rd new release biofuels from waste land, replacement power, and bio-char creation to elevate sustainable yields, lessen emissions and sequester carbon in soil. the second one, an important thrust is a severe exam of the expansion economic system paradigm of wealthy nations that's riding weather swap. The authors examine financial measures to regulate weather swap together with switching taxes from hard work to carbon and subsidies from fossil and nuclear power to renewable possible choices in addition to call for administration and effort saving. total the e-book presents a entire, severe creation to the problems and highlights the most rules which are had to start up the transformation to sustainability and evade the worst hazards of weather disaster.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Climate Change Economics and Policy
Instead of ploughing, conservation low-till (or no-till) methods leave crop residue on the surface (without ploughing and with little or no cultivation) to form a mulch or organic cover that retains moisture and protects the soil from erosion. Additionally, a leguminous cover crop such as clover can be grown after the main harvest to fix atmospheric nitrogen and replace expensive and polluting artificial nitrogen fertilizer. Seed is sown in narrow slits cut through residue and surface soil. A common disadvantage of such minimum tillage farming is the increased use of herbicides to control weeds, but this can be reduced in the long run by crop rotation, biological pest control or rolling the cover crop as described below.
However, it is important to realize that growing populations in the poorest countries – and poorest classes – are putting severe strain on some of the most vulnerable environments as competition for resources increases, with about 80 million extra mouths to feed every year. In particular, deforestation and 26 AN INTRODUCTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE ECONOMICS AND POLICY overgrazing for fuel and subsistence by poor rural populations are major causes of soil erosion and desertification all over the developing world.
A major benefit is that resistance to drought and wind and water erosion is dramatically improved, while the cost of energy-intensive ploughing and chemical inputs is avoided. In the poorest developing countries, simple hand tools can replace specialized seed planting equipment used elsewhere, so lack of knowledge among traditional farming populations remains the chief barrier to widespread adoption. In addition to erosion, the most subtle damage from the combination of monoculture cropping, ploughing and intensive chemical use is the destruction of soil micro-organisms and organic matter.