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By Judith A. Payne

During this first book-length examine to match the recent novels of either Spanish the United States and Brazil, the authors deftly study the differing perceptions of ambiguity as they practice to questions of gender and the participation of ladies and men within the institution of Latin American narrative versions. Their bold thesis: the Brazilian new novel built a extra radical shape than its better-known Spanish-speaking cousin since it had a considerably varied method of the an important problems with ambiguity and gender and since such a lot of of its significant practitioners have been women.As a smart technique for assessing the canonical new novels from Latin the US, the coupling of ambiguity and gender permits Payne and Fitz to debate how borders--literary, known, and cultural--are maintained, challenged, or crossed. Their conclusions remove darkness from the contributions of the recent novel when it comes to experimental constructions and narrative concepts in addition to the numerous roles of voice, subject, and language. utilizing Jungian thought and a poststructural optic, the authors additionally show how the Latin American new novel faces such common matters as delusion, time, fact, and truth. possibly the main unique point in their learn lies in its research of Brazil's powerful lady culture. the following, concerns comparable to replacement visions, contrasexuality, self-consciousness, and ontological hypothesis achieve new which means for the way forward for the radical in Latin America.With its comparative technique and its many bilingual quotations, a"Ambiguity and Gender within the New Novel of Brazil and Spanish America"aoffers an interesting photograph of the marked ameliorations among the literary traditions of Portuguese-speaking and Spanish-speaking the United States and, therefore, new insights into the particular mindsets of those linguistic cultures."

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However, the connection of the female to Logos is not anomalous if individuals, regardless of sex, are allowed to blend characteristics of both genders. Thus, a literary tradition like Brazil's that accepts multivalence (or ambiguity or fluidity) as central to the artistic representation of human reality 23 can more easily accept a blurring of gender distinctions. But a tradition uneasy with ambiguity (especially with regard to gender identity), as was the case in Spanish America, may find the deeply rooted and rigidly upheld male/female dichotomy to be a last bastion of resistance.

Machado de Assis can be legitimately regarded not only as a "proto-postmodernist," 7 as John Barth says, but a precursor of poststructural aesthetics as well, with all the important implications this holds for treatments of gender in later Brazilian literature. Thus, as early as 1880 (the year As Memórias Pósturnas de Brás Cubas was first published), Brazil could boast a major writer who, though widely misunderstood in his own time, would later exert an enormous influence on many twentieth-century Brazilian writers, the most talented of whom, from Oswald de Andrade to Clarice Lispector, would continue with the Machadoan tradition of irony, intertextuality, innovation, and experimentation.

5. Brazilian fiction-20th century-History and criticism. I. Fitz, Earl E. II. Title. N7P37 1993 863-dc20 92-37863 CIP Page v To Julianne, who knows the true value of things, and to our children, Ezra, Caitlin, Dylan, and Duncan, whose continued growth in wisdom and compassion gives one hope for a better future. To Bernard Payne and the late Evelyn Wessel Payne, whose joint example of flourishing spirit and soul has stood for all who have been touched by them. Page vii Contents Acknowledgments ix Introduction xi Chapter One Ambiguity, Gender Borders, and the Differing Literary Traditions of Brazil and Spanish America 1 Chapter Two Jungian Theory and the New Novel of Latin America 25 Chapter Three The Border Maintained 33 Chapter Four The Border Challenged 64 Chapter Five The Border Crossed 93 Chapter Six The Mythical Hero, Transgressor of Borders 118 Chapter Seven Writers, Characters, and the Journey of the Mythical Hero 130 Chapter Eight Women and the Word 164 Conclusion 183 Notes 189 Works Consulted 209 Index 219 Page ix Acknowledgments We would like to thank the following people for their help: Carolyn Brown for her perceptive editorial comments, Karen Connelly for her generous help in the typing of our manuscript, Ruth El Saffar for her insightful comments and kind suggestions concerning chapter 2, Mary Martin for her encouragement and for making her printer available at all hours of the day and night, Rebecca Reisert for her guidance in Jungian readings, and B.

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