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By Roger Narayan; Paolo Colombo; Michael Halbig; Sanjay Mathur; American Ceramic Society

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Additional info for Advances in bioceramics and porous ceramics V : a collection of papers presented at the 36th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 22-27, 2012, Daytona Beach, Florida

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A motorized five axis (X, Y, Z, x (tilt), (rotation)) sample stage was used for precise sample movement. Angles are shown schematically in Figure 4. Height adjustments in the Z-direction were made by an auto videolaser system before each frame. Prior to conducting the experiment, calibration of the system was checked by collecting a diffraction pattern from a NIST standard polycrystalline corundum sample. Figure 4 Schematic of the sample orientation and position of the 2d detector with respect to the diffraction cones, x is the angle subtended by the diffraction rings on the 2D detector.

The crowns were scanned at every 1° rotation with four frames for better quality images. It took only 11 minutes to Finish scanning one crown. 205 radiographs were obtained and were reconstructed into 484 twodimensional cross section slices. All three crowns were scanned. Three-dimensional rendering software (Amira) was used to visualize the tomographs. 5 urn resolution to quantify the defect size and distribution. Commercial software CTAn (Skyscan, Belgium) was used to analyze the defects. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Most ceramics are very poor thermal conductors.

Defects and stress formed during manufacture will accelerate failure. Research has shown there are large residual stresses [8-9]. Lohbauer et ai [4] analyzed fractography of a failed zirconia frame work and found that the defect cluster in the veneer layer and preexisting stress are reasons of failure, and defects at 35 urn can induce local veneer chipping. Reliability and longevity of all ceramic crowns have always been a concern. Knowing the flaw size and distribution will be a significant advantage and can help control the quality of crowns or other dental restorations and reduce the failure rate in clinical practice.

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