Download Accentuation and Active Interpretation (Palgrave Studies in by Hans-Christian Schmitz PDF

By Hans-Christian Schmitz

Hans-Christian Schmitz argues speaker has to utter a sentence in a manner that makes the hearer understand no less than these phrases which are enough for figuring out the whole sentence. In spoken language the speaker has to intensify those phrases. Semantics results of accentuation seem as epi-phenomena in their pragmatic functionality. the writer defines a proper version for the translation of incompletely famous sentences and derives a context-sensitive rule of accentuation. the rule of thumb of accentuation is experimentally evaluated.

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Example text

As a rule, however, a lie has no value when it is not believed. (Let us keep it simple. ) Therefore it is in the suspect’s interest to give the impression that he is not lying, but communicating cooperatively and fulfilling the conversational maxims. In this way, the behaviour of an intelligent liar can be described as a tactical fulfilling and non-fulfilling of the conversational maxims. He depends on the validity of the maxims in order to be able to break them effectively. Cooperative Information Exchange 39 2 The common ground In this section, I define a simple model for information exchange by assertions.

By uttering a sentence of TL the information expressed by this sentence is added to the information state. e. the sentence is entailed by the updated information state. All “known”12 sentences are entailed by the information state. e. a set of indices (so called possible worlds). t. M and TL iff σ M ⊆ I M . 12 I allow the formulation that not only propositions (meanings of declarative sentences) but also declarative sentences themselves can be known. 13 M is a reduced model, because the real world-index i ∗ , in relation to which the truth value of a sentence is determined, is lacking.

44 Accentuation and Interpretation (b) – 0 = I M is the minimal information state, – 1 = ∅ is the absurd information state. t M, Σ M , is the power set of I M : ρ( I M ). An information state with respect to an interpretation M of TL is a set of indices i ∈ I M , ergo a proposition. Let us assume that an index i∗ ∈ I M corresponds to reality. If i∗ is not an element of a given information state, the holder of the information state is misinformed; his information state contradicts reality. As long as i∗ is an element of the information state, however, the holder of the information state does not believe anything that is not actually the case; he is not misinformed, and his information state is compatible with reality.

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