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By Richard S. Katz

Political events and elections are the mainsprings of recent democracy. during this vintage quantity, Richard S. Katz explores the matter of ways a given electoral procedure impacts the function of political events and how within which get together individuals are elected. He develops and assessments a concept of the variations within the unity, ideological habit, and factor orientation of Western parliamentary events at the foundation of the electoral structures below which they compete. a typical within the box of political conception and notion, The concept of events and the Electoral System contributes to a greater figuring out of parliamentary celebration constructions and demonstrates the extensive application of the rationalistic method for explaining habit derived from the self-interest of political actors.

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Regardless of how unfavorable a candidate's constituency or how unfavorable his position on the party list, the only way in which the candidate can increase his own chance of election is by increasing the party's total vote. Conversely, nothing that increases the party's vote can hurt him* In this case, a single campaign organization with unified control over tactics and resources within each district, or even over the entire nation, is likely to be the most effective way of advancing the fortunes of each candidate.

15 In contrast, plurality electoral systems act to encourage single issue campaigns, or campaigns based on personality or locality. This is made particularly clear if the same line of reasoning just employed for proportional systems is retraced for plurality elections. (The same results follow for multimember constituencies if the additional assumption is granted that candidates act to increase the number of candidates of their party elected. The argument here will be presented in terms of single-member plurality election.

The argument here will be presented in terms of single-member plurality election. ) Under PR each party is rewarded with seats in proportion to its share of Electoral Law 25 FIG. 22. Territories of five parties in a two-dimensional issue space (mapped by solid lines) with demonstration that each must appeal to voters with diametrically opposing interests the votes. Hence its candidates may be expected always to be attempting to maximize that share in the easiest way possible. Therefore, they should focus their campaigns against the parties whose platforms are most similar to their own, Under a plurality scheme, however, a party need only be concerned with the order in which it finishes.

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