By Ranko Matasović
This grammar could be used with a few warning, not just since it was once written by means of a linguist who's faraway from being a fluent speaker of Kabardian. it truly is mostly compilatory in nature, and plenty of examples have been drawn from the prevailing works on Kabardian by means of M. L. Abitov, Mukhadin Kumakhov, and others. besides the fact that, i've got additionally excerpted and analyzed many sentences from the literature, particularly from the Nart corpus (Nārtxar, 1951, Nārtxar, 2001), and a few examples have been elicited from local audio system. even though i've got relied seriously at the released scholarly works on Kabardian, my interpretations of the knowledge are often very diversified from these within the on hand literature. i've got attempted to process the Kabardian language from a typological perspective, evaluating its linguistic good points, that could look unusual to audio system of Indo-European languages, to comparable gains present in different languages of the realm.
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Additional info for A Short Grammar of East Circassian (Kabardian)
34 Cp. Gišev 1985: 41-57, where arguments to the contrary are disputed. 35 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian The suffix positions: 1. intransitivity 2. tense 3. mood potential evidential 4. negation interrogativity We shall first deal with the prefixal verbal morphology, and then with the suffixal morphology. -neg. work-ger. -eat-NOM sin-af. -know "by god, I don't know" The two verbal negations differ in scope: the prefixed -mə- is the narrow scope negation, with thescope just over the verbal nucleus, while the suffixed negation -q'əm negates the whole sentence (including the embedded participles, infinitives, and/or gerunds).
Tense 3. mood potential evidential 4. negation interrogativity We shall first deal with the prefixal verbal morphology, and then with the suffixal morphology. -neg. work-ger. -eat-NOM sin-af. -know "by god, I don't know" The two verbal negations differ in scope: the prefixed -mə- is the narrow scope negation, with thescope just over the verbal nucleus, while the suffixed negation -q'əm negates the whole sentence (including the embedded participles, infinitives, and/or gerunds). 36 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian The other NW Caucasian languages also have prefixal negation with the infinite verbal forms, and suffixal negation with the finite forms.
It cannot appear in the form *thamāda-r) 44. e. -af. -af. -watch-pl. "People are watching" сэ соплъa sa s-aw-płā 1sg. -af. "I met you there" Some intransitive verbs have an "integrated" marker for the 3rd person object; they are "bipersonal" (Rus. dvuxličnye) 45, but their indirect object (oblique argument) is always in the 3rd person singular. The verb sən "to swim" is of this type: s-ya-s-ā-ś "I swam", w-ya-s-ā-ś, "you swam", ya-s-ā-ś "he swam", d-ya-s-ā-ś "we swam", f-ya-s-ā-ś "you swam", ya-s-ā-ś "they swam".