By Luciano Canepari
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Extra resources for A Handbook of Pronunciation
In this manner, it becomes possible to avoid the use of supplementary vocograms. ˛e purpose of these special markers will be explained clearly, whether in a text placed close to the vocogram, or in the main treatment. ˛e most common convention is the use of dashed lines, particularly for unstressed vowels which are represented by ordinary unshaded (çwhiteÇ) markers. 3), or German (with its various accents: é 5), or Brazilian Portuguese, Russian, Arabic (Ô é 7-10). 28. Markers for variants. 4. 2-3 of the HPh).
7. 3-4, we give the most extreme vocogram positions, with the express purpose of showing the limits of the region of oral space used for vocoids. 6 give positions which are more commonly found in the languages of the world; these are slightly less peripheral. In fact, certain trapezoids (or even çvowel trianglesÇ) show all of the symbols perfectly aligned along the edges, çthreadedÇ along the lines (rather like pearls, since they are all circular as well), so that they extend outside of the margins.
Examples: ('hI;≥) /'hIÈ≤/ here, ('phjU;≥) /'pjUÈ≤/ pure, ('Dø:<) /'dO:≤/ door, ('∑™;≥) /'∑EÈ≤/ `ere, ('fA:<) /'fA:≤/ far, ('f≥:) /'fÈ:≤/ fur˘ A possible pronunciation with (¤≥, ¨≥) (instead of (I≥, U≥), for /IÈ≤, UÈ≤/} does not sound strange, although it is not the most frequently heard. For /O: (that is, before vowels: /O:<é/), the realization is (O:<) (di‡erent from /O:≤/, marked by a grey marker): ('bO;<¤˙)a (->-)b /'bO: