Download A Grammar of Wandala by Zygmunt Frajzyngier PDF

By Zygmunt Frajzyngier

Wandala is a hitherto undescribed principal Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic procedure, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all useful domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is sort of various from the constitution of different Chadic languages defined up to now in either the formal capability and the features which were grammaticalized. The grammar presents proofs for the postulated hypotheses touching on kinds and capabilities. The grammar is written in a mode obtainable to linguists operating inside assorted theoretical frameworks.

The phonology is characterised via a wealthy consonantal approach, a 3 vowel method, and a tone approach. The language has plentiful vowel insertion ideas and a vowel concord process. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 principles enable the parsing of the clause into parts. The language has 3 forms of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The detrimental paradigms of verbs fluctuate from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.

The pronominal affixes and broad process of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic family in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the thing. those arguments can keep on with various ingredients. The grammatical position of that argument is coded by means of inflectional markers at the verb and such a lot curiously, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical family extra to verbs are diverse for various periods of verbs.

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Extra info for A Grammar of Wandala

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The gemination process involves both components of the consonant. The gemination of such consonants requires vowel epenthesis in between the geminated segments as illustrated above for the verb ùkpáɗá ‘crack (about nuts), have pulsating pain’. The imperative is formed through the gemination of the first consonant and the resulting addition of an epenthetic vowel viz. ùkpùkpáɗá. The gemination of the voiceless affricate can have two realizations. One consists of producing a stop followed by the affricate.

Prohibitive predication has the root form of the verb with high tone followed by the negative marker kà. 18 Questions There is a fundamental difference between the coding of polar questions and the coding of content questions. Polar questions can be coded by intonation or by the particle hè, which occurs after the predicate but before the arguments or adjuncts. This marker thus occurs in the same position as the negative maker k. Polar questions can also be coded by the disjoint conjunction mtú ‘or’.

Glides w w (wà phrase-final) ‘ventive extension’, wá ‘complementizer’. y yà ‘first-person singular subject’. The palatal glide is deleted in intervocalic position, thus resulting in a sequence of two vowels. An underlying glide in word-initial position followed by a consonant is realized as a corresponding back or front vowel. The following are the possible intermediate states: GC → GEC → EC, where G stands for the glide, C for the consonant, and E for the epenthetic vowel. Thus, the noun wrà ‘person’ is realized as [ùrà] ‘person’.

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