By Stephen Kern
This pioneering paintings is the 1st to track how our figuring out of the motives of human habit has replaced considerably over the process ecu and American cultural heritage due to the fact that 1830. targeting the act of homicide, as documented vividly via greater than 100 novels together with Crime and Punishment, An American Tragedy, The Trial, and Lolita, Stephen Kern devotes every one bankruptcy of A Cultural background of Causality to reading a particular causal issue or cause for murder--ancestry, early life, language, sexuality, emotion, brain, society, and beliefs. as well as drawing on specific novels, every one bankruptcy considers the sciences (genetics, endocrinology, body structure, neuroscience) and structures of concept (psychoanalysis, linguistics, sociology, forensic psychiatry, and existential philosophy) such a lot germane to every causal issue or motive.
Kern identifies 5 shifts in wondering causality, shifts towards expanding specificity, multiplicity, complexity, chance, and uncertainty. He argues that the extra researchers realized concerning the explanations of human habit, the extra they discovered how even more there has been to grasp and the way little they knew approximately what they suggestion they knew. The publication closes via contemplating the innovative influence of quantum concept, which, even though it stimulated novelists merely marginally, shattered the version of causal knowing that had ruled Western notion because the 17th century.
Others have addressed altering principles approximately causality in particular components, yet nobody has tackled a large cultural background of this idea as does Stephen Kern during this engagingly written and lucidly argued book.
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Additional info for A Cultural History of Causality: Science, Murder Novels, and Systems of Thought
The novels I use for evidence to make that argument are not so much typical of their time as representative. 54 Thus in Zola’s Germinal (1885), Etienne kills because of a hereditary taint from his remote human ancestors, an explanation that is unlikely in a serious modern novel. Conversely, in Compulsion (1956), Meyer Levin explains a murder by two young men as caused by their childhood sexual traumas, an explanation that appears nowhere in the cultural historical record before Freud, as far as I have been able to determine.
DeLillo invoked neurotransmitters to help explain a murder in White Noise. Dozens of novelists drew on Freud to explain how adult character and actions derive from childhood experiences and are shaped by unconscious mental processes, while Thomas Pynchon satirized Pavlovian sex conditioning in Gravity’s Rainbow (1973). In A Philosophical Investigation (1992), Philip Kerr mined Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language in crafting a main character, actually named Ludwig Wittgenstein, who attempted to put into practice the philosopher’s ideas (grotesquely misinterpreted) by committing serial homicide.
This concept refers to the fact that at higher levels of complexity properties emerge that cannot be predicted from lower levels. For example, a precise understanding of the properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons would not enable one to predict the properties of combinations of those subatomic components into atoms of oxygen and hydrogen, and a precise understanding of the properties of those atoms would not enable one to predict the properties of molecules of water such as its surface tension and boiling point, and so on to cells, individual behavior, and group behavior.